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What are Depression and its types? Symptoms and Treatment.



What is Depression?

Depression is a mental condition that can affect a person’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, causing them to feel sad and hopeless and lose interest in activities they once enjoyed. It is a common condition that ranges from mild to severe and impacts a person’s quality of life.

If untreated, depression can worsen, leading to severe complications such as substance abuse, self-harm, and suicide.

What are the signs and symptoms of depression?

The signs and symptoms of depression can manifest differently among individuals, and its indications and effects may vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe. However, some common signs and symptoms include:

  • Persistent sadness or feelings of hopelessness
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities
  • Fatigue or lack of energy
  • Difficulty sleeping or sleeping too much
  • Changes in appetite or weight
  • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
  • Irritability or restlessness
  • Some physical symptoms, such as headaches, stomachaches, or other pain
  • Thoughts of suicide or self-harm

What are the causes of depression?

Depression is a very complex condition, and its causes can vary from person to person. However, research suggests genetic, environmental, and neurological factors may cause depression.

Genetic factors may play a role in depression. Studies have found that depression runs in families and that people with a family history of depression may be more likely to develop the condition themselves. This suggests that genetic factors may increase a person’s risk of depression.

Environmental factors can also contribute to depression. Stressful life events, such as losing a loved one, divorce, or financial problems, can trigger depression in some people. Other environmental factors contributing to depression include abuse, neglect, or trauma.

Neurological factors can also play a role in depression. Research has found that people with depression have differences in their brain chemistry, specifically in the levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters regulate mood, and imbalances can contribute to depression.

Overall, depression is a complex condition likely caused by some genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Seeking help from a health professional is the best way to get a thorough understanding of the causes of depression and to find effective treatment.

What are the types of depression?

Depression is a complex disorder that can take different forms. Here are some types of depression:

Major depressive disorder (MDD): Also called clinical depression, MDD is characterized by persistent feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and lack of interest in life. Symptoms should be present for at least two weeks to be diagnosed.

Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): Formerly known as dysthymia, PDD is a chronic form of depression lasting two or more years. Symptoms are less severe than MDD but can interfere with daily life.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): SAD is a type of depression that happens during the fall and winter months when there is less daylight. Symptoms include feelings of sadness, low energy, and increased appetite.

Bipolar disorder: Bipolar disorder is diagnosed by episodes of mania (elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep) and depression.

Postpartum depression (PPD): PPD is a type of depression that occurs after giving birth. Symptoms include sadness, anxiety, and difficulty bonding with the baby.

These are just a few types of depression, and others can also occur.

What affects depression on daily lifestyle/everyday life and mental health?

Depression can significantly impact a person’s daily lifestyle and mental health.

Effects on daily lifestyle:

Depression can affect a person’s ability to function in their everyday life. Some common effects include the following:

  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Changes in appetite and weight.
  • Fatigue and low energy.
  • Sleep disturbances.

Effects on mental health:

Depression can also significantly impact a person’s mental health. Some common effects include:

  • Negative thoughts and feelings.
  • Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.
  • Loss of interest in activities.
  • Social withdrawal.

Long-term effects:

If left untreated, depression can impact mental and physical health. Some potential long-term effects include:

  • Increased risk of suicide.
  • Increased risk of chronic physical conditions.
  • Impaired cognitive function.

It’s important to seek help if someone you know or even you are experiencing symptoms of depression.

How to deal with depression on yourself?

Dealing with depression can be a challenging and complex process, but there are several things you can do to manage symptoms and feel better. Some steps you can take to deal with depression:

Seek professional help: If you are struggling with depression, it’s important to seek a mental health professional who can provide guidance and support in managing symptoms.

Practice self-care: Taking care of yourself is crucial for managing depression. Ensure you sleep well, eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and engage in activities that bring you joy and relaxation.

Build a support system: Surround yourself with supportive friends and family members who can offer emotional support and encouragement during difficult times.

Challenge negative thoughts: Depression often involves negative and self-critical thinking. Try to challenge these thoughts by asking yourself if they are rational and if there is evidence to support them.

Practice mindfulness: Incorporating mindfulness techniques, such as deep breathing and meditation, into your daily routine can assist in remaining grounded and effectively coping with challenging emotions.

Consider medication: Consulting with a medical professional about the potential benefits of medication for treating depression is advised in some instances. Speak to your doctor to determine if medication could be an appropriate option for you.

Remember that dealing with depression is a process that takes time and effort. Be patient, and don’t hesitate to seek help when needed.

Treatment for depression?

The treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Here is some information on the various treatments for depression:


Antidepressant medications are often prescribed to treat depression. These medications work by increasing levels of certain brain chemicals, such as serotonin and norepinephrine.

The most commonly prescribed antidepressant meds are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and also serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).


Psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, is another effective treatment for depression. This therapy involves talking to a mental health professional about your thoughts and feelings and working together to develop coping strategies and problem-solving skills.

Lifestyle Changes:

Changing your daily routine and habits can help manage depression symptoms. Some lifestyle changes that can be beneficial include Exercise, Sleep, and Diet.


Depression is a mental condition that can significantly impact one person’s daily life and mental health. It can affect a person’s ability to function, lead to negative thoughts and feelings, and increase the risk of chronic physical conditions and suicide if left untreated. However, with proper treatment and support, many people with depression can manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life.

Note: We do not provide any medical advice.


1. National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Depression. 2022, [3-21-2023].

2. Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Depression. from [3-21-2023].

3. American Psychiatric Association. (n.d.). What is depression? [3-21-2023].

4. World Health Organization. (2022, October). Depression. [3-21-2023].

5. Harvard Health Publishing. (2021, October). What causes depression? [3-21-2023].

6. (2022, January). Depression symptoms and warning signs. [3-21-2023].

7. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. (2004). Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Review. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU). [3-21-2023].


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